Latin America since the midth century The postwar world, —80 In Latin America as elsewhere, the close of World War II was accompanied by expectations, only partly fulfilled, of steady economic development and democratic consolidation. Popular education also increased, as did exposure to the mass media and mass culture—which in light of the economic lag served to feed dissatisfaction. Military dictatorships and Marxist revolution were among the solutions put forward, but none were truly successful.
This chapter has been published in the book America to For ordering information please click here. He became a sailor, navigator, captain, and mapmaker, and after he dedicated his life to the audacious venture of leading an expedition to explore eastern Asia by sailing west.
Finally in after the Spanish had defeated the Moors at Granada and expelled them and the Jews from Spain, King Fernando Ferdinand and Queen Isabel agreed to finance the bold venture.
Columbus told his crew they were going shorter distances than his own estimate so that they would not be so afraid; but modern scholars have calculated that his false reports were actually more accurate than his own estimates.
On October 10 the crews resisted going any further west; but Columbus promised them he would turn back if they did not see land in three days.
Two days later they landed on an island he called San Salvador, where they found a few naked Tainos Arawaks. Taino means "peace" or "friend. The natives had no iron, and one cut himself handling the wrong end of a sword. Columbus observed that they were intelligent and believed they would be good Christians and servants.
Noticing a golden ornament worn on a nose, he tried to ask them where they found the gold. Columbus forbade his crew from taking things of value from them. On October 14 he took seven of them with him to learn his language, and he wrote in his logbook that fifty of his men could easily subjugate them.
Columbus explored and claimed many islands. Some women wore a piece of cotton over their genitals, but most were naked. Many inhabitants ran away when they saw the Spaniards coming. From Cuba they took a dozen people, including a man who wanted to be with his family.
After one of their interpreters told the fleeing natives that the Christians had come from the sky, they were given hospitality. The local cacique chief Guacanagari was carried in a litter and shared with his tribe the food they gave him.
On December 24 while Columbus was resting, his flagship Santa Maria was wrecked on a reef; but the natives helped his men salvage all they could.
Columbus named the new settlement Navidad, and 39 of his men volunteered to stay there while he returned to Spain. Efforts were being made to find gold, and they were warned about the aggressive Caribs, whom they believed were cannibals.
Before they departed, a group of Indians charged seven Spaniards, who wounded two of them before the fifty-five natives fled. Columbus went northeast and found favorable winds; but a storm near the Azores caused them to pray and promise pilgrimages.
Half his men on the pilgrimage, dressed only in shirts, were captured by the Portuguese; but Columbus managed to get them back and was received by King Joao II at Lisbon before he returned triumphantly to the Spanish court at Barcelona. According to their agreement, Columbus was recognized as viceroy over the lands he discovered.
He promised that they would bring back gold, spices, cotton, mastic, aloes, and slaves. A large expedition with seventeen ships and at least 1, men was organized.
On the second voyage Columbus explored the leeward islands Antilleswhere they found the Caribs treated women cruelly and slaughtered and ate men.
When they got back to Navidad, they learned that all the Christians were dead: Guacanagari claimed that he had been wounded, though some doubted his injury.
He sent Alonso de Ojeda Hojeda with fourteen men to look for gold at Cibao. Captain Antonio de Torres took twelve ships back to Castile with many requests by Columbus. While the Admiral was visiting the gold fields discovered by Ojeda, a plot to overthrow him was organized by Bernal de Pisa, who was caught and imprisoned.The Spanish conquest of Mexico is generally understood to be the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire (–21) which was the base for later conquests of other regions.
Later conquests were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than the conquest of the Aztecs. An Environmental History of Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press Schwaller, John Frederick. The History of the Catholic Church in Latin America: From Conquest to Revolution and Beyond (New York University Press; ) pages; Trigger, Bruce, and Wilcomb E.
Washburn, eds. Latin America generally refers to territories in the Americas where the Spanish or Portuguese or French languages prevail: Mexico, most of Central and South America, and in the Caribbean, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto urbanagricultureinitiative.com America is, therefore, defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish, Portuguese and French Empires.
The Spanish conquest of Latin America brought many important changes to Latin American society. Spain sent royal governors or viceroys to rule the colonies in the king’s name.
Gold and silver from the Americas were shipped to Spain, making it the strongest power in Europe in the 16th century. The conquest of Latin America was out of greed and search for power and fame.
Many civilizations nearly or did get wiped out due to the search for gold and other riches. It started out with Columbus looking for a faster water route going to the east that went to the Indies, for a more profi. Learn about Bartolomé de Las Casas’s place in the history of Latin American literature.
What impact did Bartolomé de Las Casas’s writings have in Spain? The Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies) had an immediate impact in Spain.