This is the text of my keynote speech at the 34th Chaos Communication Congress in Leipzig, December
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment.
Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.
A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it. Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low.
Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations. If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population.
Then, even if circumstances change such that it no longer provides any survival or reproductive advantage, the behavior will still tend to be exhibited -- unless it becomes positively disadvantageous in the new environment.
The diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological niches for example, Darwin's finches. The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals.
A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale. Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics.
A person who believes that the existence of a god or creator and the nature of the universe is unknowable. An umbrella term for various simple organisms that contain chlorophyll and can therefore carry out photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats and in moist situations on land.
The term has no direct taxonomic significance. Algae range from macroscopic seaweeds such as giant kelp, which frequently exceeds 30 m in length, to microscopic filamentous and single-celled forms such as Spirogyra and Chlorella. One of the alternative forms of a gene.
For example, if a gene determines the seed color of peas, one allele of that gene may produce green seeds and another allele produce yellow seeds. In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene one from each parent. Within a population there may be many different alleles of a gene; each has a unique nucleotide sequence.
The relation between the size of an organism and the size of any of its parts. For example, an allometric relation exists between brain size and body size, such that in this case animals with bigger bodies tend to have bigger brains.
Allometric relations can be studied during the growth of a single organism, between different organisms within a species, or between organisms in different species.
Speciation that occurs when two or more populations of a species are geographically isolated from one another sufficiently that they do not interbreed. Living in separate places. The unit molecular building block of proteinswhich are chains of amino acids in a certain sequence.
There are 20 main amino acids in the proteins of living things, and the properties of a protein are determined by its particular amino acid sequence. A series of amino acids, the building blocks of proteinsusually coded for by DNA.Cells Without Nuclei.
Prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, do not have a nucleus or a nucleolus. In such cells, ribosomes are made in the cytoplasm. acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large.
Essay Quiz Compare and Contrast Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell structures Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells both have DNA as their genetic material, are covered by a cell membrane, contain.
RNA, and are both made from the same basic chemical (carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acid, minerals, fats, and vitamins). Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells both can contain a cell wall however in prokaryotic cells the cell wall is peptidoglycan (a mixture of sugar and protein) if the organism is a eubacteria, or pseudomurein if the organism is a archae bacteria whereas in eukarotic cells a cell wall is only present if the organism is a plant or a fungi and /5(5).
Aug 26, · For one, the eukaryotic is much larger in size compared to a prokaryotic cell. Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells .