Every free action is produced by the concurrence of two causes; one moral, i. When I walk towards an object, it is necessary first that I should will to go there, and, in the second place, that my feet should carry me. If a paralytic wills to run and an active man wills not to, they will both stay where they are.
Definition. An "asset-backed security" is sometimes used as an umbrella term for a type of security backed by a pool of assets, and sometimes for a particular type of that security – one backed by consumer loans or loans, leases or receivables other than real estate. In the first case, collateralized debt obligations (cdo, securities backed by debt . Over the last decade, the public procurement profession has seen greater use of alternative delivery methods of construction projects, including design-build, construction manager at risk (GC/CM or CM/GC), public private partnerships (P3), and job order contracting. The traditional method of soliciting and contracting, design-bid . Privatisation involves selling state-owned assets to the private sector. It is argued the private sector tends to run a business more efficiently because of the profit motive. However, critics argue private firms can exploit their monopoly power and ignore wider social costs.
Prominent historical examples of socialist countries include the former Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Contemporary examples include Cuba, Venezuela and China. Socialist ideals include production for use, rather than for profit ; an equitable distribution of wealth and material resources among all people; no more competitive buying and selling in the market; and free access to goods and services.
Under early capitalist economies during the late 18th and 19th centuries, western European countries experienced industrial production and compound economic growth at a rapid pace. Some individuals and families rose to riches quickly, while others sank into poverty, creating income inequality and other social concerns.
It was primarily Lenin who expounded on the ideas of earlier socialists and helped bring socialist planning to the national level after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
Following the failure of socialist central planning in the Soviet Union and Maoist China during the 20th century, many modern socialists adjusted to a highly regulatory and redistributive system, sometimes referred to as market socialism or democratic socialism.
Capitalism Capitalist economies also known as free-market or market economies and socialist economies differ by their logical underpinnings, stated or implied objectives, and structures of ownership and production.
Socialists and free-market economists tend to agree on fundamental economics — the supply and demand framework, for instance — while disagreeing about its proper adaptation. Several philosophical questions also lie at the heart of the debate between socialism and capitalism: What is the role of government?
What constitutes a human right? What roles should equality and justice play in a society? Functionally, socialism and free-market capitalism can be divided on property rights and control of production.
In a capitalist economy, private individuals and enterprises own the means of production and the right to profit from them; private property rights are taken very seriously and apply to nearly everything. In a socialist economy, the government owns and controls the means of production; personal property is sometimes allowed, but only in the form of consumer goods.
In a socialist economy, public officials control producers, consumers, savers, borrowers and investors by taking over and regulating trade, the flow of capital and other resources. In a free-market economy, trade is conducted on a voluntary, or nonregulated, basis.
Market economies rely on the separate actions of self-determining individuals to determine production, distribution and consumption. Decisions about what, when and how to produce are made privately and coordinated through a spontaneously developed price system, and prices are determined by the laws of supply and demand.
Proponents say that freely floating market prices direct resources towards their most efficient ends. Profits are encouraged and drive future production. Socialist economies rely on either the government or worker cooperatives to drive production and distribution.
Consumption is regulated, but it is still partially left up to individuals.
The state determines how main resources are used and taxes wealth for redistributive efforts. Socialists consider capitalism and the free market to be unfair and possibly unsustainable. For example, most socialists contend that market capitalism is incapable of providing enough subsistence to the lower classes.
They contend that greedy owners suppress wages and seek to retain profits for themselves. Proponents of market capitalism counter that it is impossible for socialist economies to allocate scarce resources efficiently without real market prices.
They claim that the resultant shortages, surpluses and political corruption will lead to more poverty, not less.
Overall, they say, that socialism is impractical and inefficient, suffering in particular from two major challenges. That is, socialist planners cannot incentivize laborers to accept dangerous or uncomfortable jobs without violating the equality of outcomes. Without accurate factor costs, no true accounting may take place.
Without futures marketscapital can never reorganize efficiently over time. Can a Country be Both?Private police in the United States are law enforcement bodies that are owned and/or controlled by non-governmental entities such as security agencies.
There is a strong overlap between the work of police and security, given that they share the same goals, perform the same activities and cooperate with one another, and often the same .
Simply stated, privatization is the transfer of government functions to the private sector. For example, the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), initially founded in to provide financing for home mortgages, was converted into a private corporation in Oct 10, · Privatization can be accomplished by sale or lease.
It can be accomplished by the government selling % of an enterprise, or selling 51%, or even by selling a minority stake - so long as the private sector is given full managerial control.
Oct 10, · the pros and cons of privatization This paper will look at the meaning, purposes, types, workability, types and techniques, merits and demerits of privatization with an eye in China, Vietnam and Russia where it had been used an economic catalyst of development.
Privatisation involves selling state-owned assets to the private sector. It is argued the private sector tends to run a business more efficiently because of the profit motive. However, critics argue private firms can exploit their monopoly power and ignore wider social costs.
*Soon after the End-Term Second Semester Examinations the students will undergo training for four weeks and will submit the report incorporating the work done at least eight weeks before the commencement of the Third Semester End Term Examinations.