DOIs provide publication details for electronic resources. What is a DOI?
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Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.
Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work.
Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al.
If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
According to the American Psychological AssociationIf the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list viz. To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.
If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list.
Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.
For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase.
List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above.
Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.Authors. No authors: Use the title in place of urbanagricultureinitiative.comn title if needed. Use double quotation marks for title of an article, a chapter, or a web page.
Use italics for title of . These posts on the APA Style blog will also be helpful: How to Cite Something You Found on a Website in APA Style Missing Pieces: How to Write an APA Style Reference Even Without All the Information.
Websites are common sources for essays, but citing them can be tricky; when the site has no clear author, it can be even trickier. The American Psychological Association style has specific guidelines for citing Web pages that do not have authors, both in the text .
Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free.
For most references, this will be the author and date (Author, date). For titles in Position A, use italics for works that stand alone (Title of Document, date) and quotation marks for works that are part of a greater whole (“Title of Document,” date).
Oct 06, · Web resources form a separate category in the APA urbanagricultureinitiative.com consist of four components: author, publication date, title and URL.
Websites are common sources for essays, but citing them can be tricky; when the site has no clear author, it can be even trickier. The American Psychological Association style has specific guidelines for citing Web pages that do not have authors, both in the text . Website overview: Since the Study Guides and Strategies Website has been researched, authored, maintained and supported as an international, learner-centric, educational public service. Permission is granted to freely copy, adapt, and distribute individual Study Guides in print format in non-commercial educational settings that benefit learners. Writing Website In-Text Citations and References Dear Style Expert, Because you’re citing specific information, you will need to write a regular APA Style author–date citation. Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: Simply include the author and year of publication. Rose on Writing Website In-Text.
Unfortunately, some of /5(22).